Typical mistakes in the construction of solar stations
Solar power plants are now quite often installed by individual users in their own homesteads. Often, ignorance of the features of their functioning not only reduces the already low efficiency of units, but also causes expensive elements to fail. What mistakes do inexperienced owners make?
Incorrect orientation of the modules
The maximum performance of small solar power plants in the case of their installation in the direction of the South-East or South-West. In addition, the angle of inclination should be equal to the latitude of the area. Only in this position will the panels be illuminated by direct sunlight for the maximum time.
Deviation from the recommended directions by more than 30° sharply reduces the efficiency.
Errors with the placement of the inverter. This very expensive element can completely fail due to overheating. It should be placed in shaded areas and exclude heat from the sun. It is desirable that natural ventilation is effective.
Incorrect calculation and installation of grounding systems
The existing electrical wiring in the house has its own equipment for protection against power surges, but for a solar station it is necessary to install a separate one. The wires should not be closer than 50 cm from the old ones. fuses and circuit breakers should be installed separately.
Errors in calculating the cable cross-section. Power cables should be taken up to 1000 V, while taking into account the operating voltage.
Previously, panels with a height of 1.65 m and a power of 250 W were very popular. now, panels with a power of 320 W and a height of 2 m are often installed. When installing new modules, you must make appropriate changes to the supporting structure, otherwise they are too high and can be undermined by wind gusts. The connection of the photo modules to the string cables must be brass, steel or galvanized quickly oxidize.
The distance between the roof and the solar panels should be sufficient for air cooling. Super-heated panels dramatically reduce power, with a drop of at least 0.35% per degree.
Before purchasing panels, you need to accurately determine the requirement for them, and it depends on what is the consumption of electrical energy in the house. It is recommended to record hourly meter readings for at least a week. the data obtained is used for calculating the technical parameters of a solar power plant. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the prospect of selling excess energy to the general network.