What are the components of an isolated installation?
What are the components that make up a solar insulated connection kit? In this article we will talk about the different elements that make up a solar isolated kit, that is, a solar kit that is not connected to the grid and that will be the only source of energy for our home, devices… Then the basic elements of a solar isolated kit, are:
Solar plates convert solar radiation into direct current. Obviously the higher the radiation, the more energy the solar plates will produce at the same power. However, it should be borne in mind that two equal panels will have a different performance depending on the radiation, which changes according to the geographical area, or also by inclination and orientation, among other causes.
We can categorize the typology of solar panels in different shapes; the most common is to differentiate the panels according to whether they are polycrystalline or monocrystalline.
There are solar panels, which for their working voltage were created specific for isolated solar kits, although this is increasingly less important because of the work performed by the charge regulator.
Solar inverters need to be connected to batteries and are responsible for converting the direct current that can be extracted from them to alternating current suitable for normal consumption of a home. Isolated inverters can usually be: 12V, 24V or 48V and it is very important that they generate a pure sine wave so as not to have faults in the electrical devices that we connect them.
We can choose several power options depending on the simultaneous consumption that we need to connect. Although there are exceptions, the logical and usual are powers up to 1500W at 12V, about 3000W at 24V and from 4000 or 5000W at 48V.
It is very common to integrate the charge controller within the inverter itself and also the functionality of a battery charger from an external source. This is very useful because in isolated installations it is customary to have a gasoline generators or diesel generators that can cover emergency consumption in low production conditions.
Solar batteries are responsible for storing energy that is captured and not used during sunny hours. So we will have that energy at night or at times of less production. They account for almost half of the budget in an isolated solar system and it is therefore very important that they fit our needs.
There are small and economical batteries for more discreet uses and large accumulators for greater needs. Similarly also different types of technologies such as lead acid batteries, AGM batteries, GEL batteries, stationary batteries or lithium battery.
The batteries are grouped together to obtain the working voltage required by the inverter and their capacity must also be in line with the power of the inverter and the use that we will give the system. You also need to make sure that the charge controller is ready to work at the voltage of the battery bank for everything to work.
All the items named above need to be connected to each other. For this it is necessary to respect the sections as current circulates at very different intensities between the elements mentioned. The recommended distance should also not be exceeded as, when working at low voltages, voltage drops can cause a malfunction of the entire system.
Initially it may seem like an unimportant complement; however, it is responsible for firmly attaching the solar panels to the surface on which we are going to place them. The importance of proper inclination and orientation for the best possible performance of a solar system should not be overlooked either.
Additionally, it is common to have a fuel-powered generator for emergency recharging of solar system batteries. Normally, if the solar system is well dimensioned to what is needed, the generator will be used very few days throughout the year.